Airport Sheremetyevo 2
Sheremetyevo International Airport otherwise known as Sheremetyevo-2 was constructed particularly for the 1980 Olympic Games. It is located about 20 miles (32 kilometers) northwest of central Moscow. Among the other five airports situated outside Moscow Sheremetyevo is Russia’s main gateway to the wider world. Most international flights arrive here. The airport’s carrying capacity is 3,600 passengers per hour. The infrastructure of the airport includes two runways, two passenger terminals (international and domestic) and 20 gates. ATM machines and Exchange facilities are available in the international terminal but the exchange rate is normally higher than in exchanges located in the city. There’s a selection of cafes and bars. The main attractions of the airport are duty-free shops selling tax-free alcohol, caviar, souvenirs, and some travel junk. However, you’d better not give in to the shopping fever and rush spending all of your money in the first airport store. You’ll have plenty of shopping opportunities in Moscow’s best stores and markets offering a much wider variety of high-quality caviar, vodka and souvenirs at lower prices.
Defensive constructions – Antitank Hedgehogs
In December 1966 a solemn opening ceremony of the monument commemorating the glorious victory of the Russian arms over the Nazi Germany was held at the 23d kilometer of Leningrad highway leading to Moscow. The 6 meters high monument-memorial was constructed on the spot where in autumn 1941 a most important counteroffensive near Moscow took place. It represents a marble copy of defensive constructions a.k.a. antitank hedgehogs made of rails. These simple but very reliable constructions served as major fortifications against the Nazi military hardware. The memorial rests on a huge stone platform decorated with a bar relief depicting soldiers and guerillas – the heroic defenders of the Russian capital. The inscription at the bottom of the memorial is a line taken from a song devoted to Moscow: The enemy will never see you fall!
The Northern River Port
The Moscow Northern River Terminal surrounded by a picturesque park was built in 1937 in "Stalinist Gothic" style to resemble a passenger ship. The red ruby star atop the 85-meter-high spire supposedly was taken from the walls of the Kremlin itself. With the completion of the impressive MOSCOW-Volga Canal in 1937, the capital was finally linked to the great system of waterways that runs from St. Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland all the way to Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. Thus, Moscow became the port of five seas: the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, the Caspian Sea, the White Sea and the Baltic Sea.
The river port is the arrival-departure point for numerous tourist boats cruising in all directions all around the European part of Russia. The white beauties with Russian tri-colors set sail to the Farewell to Slavyanka, a march composed more than a hundred years ago, and the happy tourists paying tribute to a centuries-old leaving tradition assemble on the decks waving their hands to their friends on the pier wishing them an enjoyable journey.
Byelorussian Railway Terminal
None of Moscow railway terminals has changed its name as many times as Byelorussian railway station – the former Smolensk, Alexandrovsk, Brest, Byelorussian-Baltic Railway Terminal. Built in 1870 in eclectic style and redesigned in 1909 nowadays it connects Moscow with the European regions of the Russian Federation, Byelorussia, Lithuania, and Central and East European countries. Byelorussian Railway Terminal witnessed a lot of historic events. In 1941 at the beginning of World War Two the Soviet irregular army departed from here to the front, in 1945 the first echelons with soldiers arrived in Moscow from Berlin defeated by the glorious Soviet Army.
The Eighth Sister
Triumph-Palace, a new Stalinist-style 40-storey high-riser, has been nicknamed the Eighth Sister of the earlier Seven Sisters or Wedding Cakes constructed in Moscow over 50 years ago. The seven Sisters were constructed on order of Stalin just after World War II to prove that Russia could keep up with the West. More significantly, the high-rises were built to embody the glory of Muscovite culture and the superpower of the Communist state. The design of the buildings and the decoration recall 17th-century Russian churches, and the ornate exteriors are drawn from Gothic cathedrals. Similar the Seven Sisters in exterior design, the Eighth Sister is different from them in interior having all modern conveniences and extensive facilities which can’t but influence the price.
Peter’s palace
At the beginning of the 18th century Peter the Great transferred the Russian capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg. However, Russian rulers kept paying visits to the former capital and on these occasions before the ceremonial entry to the old capital they would make a stopover at the so-called Journey Palaces located on the way from St. Petersburg to Moscow. Peter’s Palace was built in 1776-1796 by a renowned Russian architect Matvei Kazakov on order of Catherine the Great. She stayed at the palace before the festivities held in Moscow on the occasion of Russian victory over Turkey. In 1812 Napoleon, retreating from the Moscow during the fire, spent several days at the palace.
Combining the architectural techniques of neoclassicism, the Old Russian ornamental style and the romantic features of Gothic the palace is the first eclectic construction in the history of Russian architecture. The interior decoration of the palace features the Louis XVI style.
With the transferral of the capital to St. Petersburg in the 18th century, the Tzar and his court left Moscow. Even so they paid frequent visits to the former capital and on these occasions the Tsars and Tsarinas would make a stopover in the village of Vsekhsvyatskoye. Wooden "journey palaces" had been built here where the royal family would rest before making ceremonial entry into Moscow. In 1776-1796, the Petrovsky Stopover Palace, to be used in place of the old wooden palaces, was built by the noted architect Matvei Kazakov on the site of the village of Petrovskoye. Surroundedby brick fortress walls with towers, the palace combines the architectural techniques of neoclassicism with the vivid ornamental style of Old Russian building and the romantic features of Gothic. The interior decoration of the palace used to feature the Louis XVI style before being renovated in empire style.
The palace has been home to different people. In the XX century it housed the Air Forces Academy named after Zhukovsky. At present Peter’s Palace is under reconstruction. According to Moscow Mayor’s ambitious plans it will turn into a gorgeous de-luxe hotel.
Dynamo stadium
Built in 1928 Dynamo stadium has been redesigned several times. Throughout its 70 year old history it has seated 120 million spectators. Over 30 thousand competitions in over 20 kinds of sport with over 30 million partakers have been held here. Soccer matches took place here during the 1980 Olympics. At present the stands can seat 54 thousand spectators.
Old Believers’ church
The Old Believers’ church of St. Nicholas is one of the few found in Moscow.
In the mid-17th century the Russian Orthodox Church engaged in an internal conflict began to tear apart. For centuries the bible and all text on riots and expressions had been translated and copied by hand. In different parts of Russia the scriptures differed. Seeking a single liturgy universal for every Russian Orthodox believer Patriarch Nikon adopted the practices of the Greek Orthodox Church including the Greek religious vestments and the Trinity cult. Thus, the believers were required to cross themselves with three fingers instead of two as was a traditional ritual before and sing three alleluias when praying which according to the Greek tradition symbolized God Father, God Son and the Holy Spirit. Some clergymen and lay people refused to accept the liturgical reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon. Traditional believers headed by clergyman Avvakum revolted against the church authority in an attempt to restore the traditional rituals. This was how the Old Believers' schism emerged. The nation was split into two warring camps – the New and the Old believers. Eventually the Old Believers were suppressed by the church authorities and forced to flee Central Russian. Many of them settled in Siberia and managed to preserve the old ways. Nowadays Old Believers are viewed by the official Russian Orthodox Church as a legal confession within Orthodoxy. There Old Believers’ Churches in Moscow catch one’s eye immediately by their simple and somewhat austere exterior.
Tverskaya Street
As far back as the 14th century there was a road linking Moscow and Tver, which at that time one of the most powerful Russian principalities, and by the 17th century Tverskaya had become the main street of Moscow. One hundred years later it became the beginning of the road to Russia's new capital, St. Petersburg. At that time Tverskaya was occupied by the high society of Moscow: magnificent palaces and mansions of Catherine the Great's high officials were erected here. With time the appearance of the old street changed: in the late 19th century Tverskaya was bright with the signboards of luxurious Moscow shops, confectioners, fashionable hotels, and the best barbers and tailors.
Everything that was new and best in Moscow started at Tverskaya.
In the late 19th century the first electric tram in Moscow went along Tverskaya Street.
Now it is the major street in Moscow. On the left ant on the right you can see shops, boutiques, hotels, cafes and reastaurants. Electric lights appeared on Tverskaya earlier than on other streets.
Some buildings are in granite captured from the Germans in December 1941. The Fascists had brought the granite to Moscow to erect a monument to the victorious German soldiers in the capital's centre, but this 'memorial' stone was destined for a different purpose.
Now on both sides of the street you can see blocks of flats with shops and boutiques on the ground floor. Different Russian and foreign companies sell their goods there.
Sheraton hotel
Sheraton hotel was built in 1993 and became one of the first Moscow hotels of international class. Located in the historical center of Moscow in the main trade street of the capital close to the most famous landmarks it’s attracted many well-known people – Denis Tito, Christopher Lambert, Andron Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky, Anna Kurnikova, Marat Safin, and others.
Marriott hotel
The Marriott Grand hotel opened in 1997 in one of the most prestigious areas of Moscow – Tverskaya Street. The Marriott Grand is among the few Moscow hotels, which can offer all the luxuries and services on a level with the highest world standards. Among the famous visitors of the hotel are: Presidents of the USA Bill Clinton and George Bush, Vice-President of the USA Albert Gore, State Secretaries of the USA Madlen Albright and Colin Pauel, Prime Minister of Israel Ariel Sharon, Vice-President of Brazil Marco Antonio de Oliveira Masiel, Catrin Denev, Patricia Kaas, Milen Farmer, Natalia Oreiro, Enrique Iglesias, Eros Ramazotti, the bands A-HA, Eagles, Depeche Mode, Modern Talking, and others.
Former Publishing Agency of Sytin built by Erickson
The fascinating building of the 19th century publishing agency owned by Sytin is and outstanding example of Russian art nouveau.
The architect Erikson, one of the most famous art nouveau adherents, designed many buildings in Moscow – mansions, apartment houses, railway stations, banks, and publishing houses. He used unusual materials for both interior exterior decorations – mosaic tiles, glazed bricks, plate glass panels and metal. His gorgeous masterpieces still strike Muscovites and guests of the capital with their vibrant original beauty.
Monument to Pushkin
The period from 1820 to about 1835 is known as the "Golden Age" of Russian poetry lit by the genius of the greatest poet of the period – Aleksandr Pushkin. Still today, Pushkin is as revered by Russians as Shakespeare is by speakers of English.
The opening ceremony of the monument to Pushkin designed by sculptor Opekushin took place on 6, June, 1880. The four children of the poet, as well as outstanding Russian writers Dostoyevsky, Turgenev, Ostrovsky were present at the solemn ceremony in Tverskaya Street. The funds were raised from public subscription and the bronze statue of the greatest Russian poet was installed in Moscow downtown.
The first biggest McDonald’s in Europe
In 1990 the first McDonald's was opened in Moscow, and thus the first McDonald's restaurant in the Soviet Union, which could seat 700 and serve up to 50,000 customers a day. This restaurant in Pushkin Square is believed to be the largest McDonald's in the world. Back in 1990 McDonald’s seemed the symbol of the long-awaited “happy future” with its bright colors and glass walls looking weird in the gray constructivist environment. This sparkling “wonder” attracted crowds of Muscovites. On its opening day thousands of people rushed to taste miraculous burgers, delicious fries and incomparable milk cocktails. Although the standard set cost a lot of money for most of the customers they were ready to queue for hours to get into the Golden Arc Paradise. Things have changed ever since and now most Muscovites still appreciate McDonald’s but for a different reason – for the clean and comfortable restrooms which are in addition absolutely free of charge.
Yeliseyev Food store
Yeliseev Food Store is among the main attractions in Tverskaya Street. If you drop in you’ll hardly believe it’s a store – the interior resembles a magnificent palace with elegant chandeliers and ornate moldings. The Elise’s were famous merchants – Petersburg millionaires who owned a provision store on Nevsky Prospect, which was the biggest in Russia. In the late 1890s G. Yeliseyev bought the building and opened 'Yeliseyev's Emporium and Wine cellar of Russian and Imported Wines.' After the revolution the food store remained the same. Only the Yeliseyev name was removed and it became known as Grocery Store No. I, retaining the same popularity as earlier. And Muscovites still called it by its former name, Yeliseyev's.
English club
A wonderful late 18th century mansion behind a wall decorated with statues of lions now houses the Museum of Contemporary History of Russia. In the 18th century the members of the first secret mason society had their rallies here. In 1831 the mansion became home for the English club. For over 70 years the Museum of the Revolution was located here in the Soviet period of the Russian history until it was slightly reorganized and got a different name in 1991. Designed by the architect Jiliardi at the turn of the 18-19th centuries the mansion has preserved the empire exterior with a symmetrical façade and white marble Doric columns.
Monument to Yuri Dolgoruki
The majestic equestrian monument to Prince Yury Dolgoruky constructed on Tverskaya Square in 1954 has become a distinctive symbol of the Russian capital. The first written record of Moscow dates back to the year of 1147 when Great Prince of Kiev Yuri Dolgoruky had a meeting with the Prince of Novgorod Svyatoslav in a place called Moskva, at that time a small fortified wooden settlement on a hill (where the Kremlin is located now) surrounded by two rivers and a moat. Yuri Dolgoruky was the founder of Moscow-Suzdal principality which became strong and independent under his rule thanks to his wise unification policy. Being a man of property he struggled for control over neighboring principalities and even distant southern territories. For his passion for accumulation of land and property Grand Price Yuri was nicknamed Dolgoruky or The-Long-Armed.
Mayor’s Office
The magnificent building of the Mayor’s Office, formerly the residence of the Moscow governor-general, was constructed in the late 18th century by an outstanding Russian architect Kazakov. Ever since it has been the City Hall.
Manezh Square
Hundreds of years ago merchants and craftsmen settled in Manezh square and the place developed as the trading center with lots of stores selling different wares. Later on the area was occupied by banks and shops remaining the commercial heart of the capital. At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries the square started acquiring its present day looks with the construction of the History museum in 1883, the City Hall remembered by many as the Museum of Lenin and the luxurious National hotel in 1903. In 1932 all pubs and shops located in the square were removed and Moskva Hotel was erected on their spot. It’s hard to imagine that for over fifty years Manezh square looked like a deserted grey parade ground that was animated by the lines of Soviet officers and soldiers and heavy machinery during the annual parades before their entry to Red Square.
An ambitious project of Moscow Mayor was set up in 1994 and in three years later a lavish underground shopping mall adjacent to Red Square was opened to public. Manezh square has become an inseparable part of the present day downtown landscape combining modern design with the architectural features of the historic part of Moscow. Manezh square is a recreational zone with lots of greenery, fountain cascades, and park sculpture. Every day 66 thousand people visit the huge 3 storey underground shopping mall. The interior of each level shows is designed to show a historical retrospective. Going down the stairs the visitor travels in history moving from art nouveau through classicism down to the medieval art of Russia.
History Museum
The History Museum was built in the 19th century by the architect Sherwood. The architecture and the colour of the building repeat the architecture and the colour of the Kremlin walls and towers and thus this building does not break the harmony of the Red Square architectural ensemble but on the contrary contributes to its unique composition and style. The Historical Museum contains a rich collection of icons, Old Russian arms, archaeological items, gold-, silver-, metalwork, etc. and is worth visiting, indeed. Alongside with permanent collections one can find here temporary exhibitions devoted to different problems and events.
National hotel
National was built in 1903 and has since been a premier hotel with an incredible restaurant and excellent service.
In 1918 the hotel was turned into one of Soviet Union's prime venues for official events. It permanently hosted members of the Bolshevik Government, including Lenin.
In 1991 National was closed for restoration to reopen four years later as one of the capital's most fashionable and prestigious hotels. The Russian colouring and exquisite interiors combined with the modern international standards of hospitality and the highest level of service make this hotel truly unique. National is an associated member of hotel chain Le Meridien and is a member of The Leading Hotels of the World organization, which unites the highest class hotels around the world.
National is located in the very centre of the capital, its windows open a matchless view at the Kremlin and the Manezh Square. 5 minutes of walking time away are the Bolshoy Theatre and the Red Square. Distance to Sheremetyevo-2 airport is 32 km.
Theatre square
Theatre square (in Soviet times – Sverdlov Square) took shape in 1817 after Neglinnaya river was piped underground and the hilly and marshy area was drained and leveled. Transected by Petrovka Street the square was known as Petrovka Square up to the 19th century. Later on it got another name – Florist square after the florist market that was located here. The modern name appeared in the 1820s when the architect Beauvais built the Bolshoi and Maly Theatres.
The world famous Bolshoi Theatre is designed in neoclassical style and decorated with a monumental Corinthian columns and a portico with Apollo in a luxurious chariot driven by four bronze horses. The five-tiered auditorium that can seat about three thousand spectators is well known for its excellent acoustics and rich ornamentation. A gorgeous giant crystal chandelier hangs from the ceiling decorated with a painting.
A lot of renowned artists have performed on the stage of the Bolshoi – Fyodor Chaliapin sang here and Galina Ulanova and Maya Plisetskaya danced on its boards.
This year the theatre has opened its 236th season.
Metropol hotel
The hotel Metropol in Moscow is a monument of architecture and history of highest importance.
Hotel Metropol owes its birth to the famous patron of art Savva Mamontov. Such famous artists as Korovin, Vrubel, Polenov together with the engineer Chokolov and the architect Kekushev worked at the project. As a result a magnificent art nouveau architectural ensemble decorated with unmatched ceramic panels appeared in the heart of Moscow. The Muscovites would come in crowds to see the "Tower of Babel of the 20th century": that was how Hotel Metropol was nicknamed those days. None of the other hotels in Russia except the Metropol could boast of hot water, refrigerators, elevators, and telephones.
A legend says that Sergey Esenin spoke about his love to Isadora Duncan in the central restaurant of the Metropol. It was here that M. Rostropovich met G. Vishnevskaya; scenes for American ‘Doctor Jivago’ were filmed; the fashion designer V. Yudashkin demonstrated his first collection.
For the last years such noble political leaders as President of France J. Shirak, Vice-President of the USA A. Gore, King of Spain Juan Carlos have visited the Metropol. Among the famous guests of the hotel there are Montserrat Caballier, Catrin Denev, Patricia Kaas, Julia Ormond, Michael Jackson, Elton John, Pierre Carden, Arnold Schwartsnegger, Steven Segal, Silvestre Stallone, Luck Besson, Mila Iovovich, Gerrar Depardie, President of the International Olympic Committee Antonio Samarantch.
KGB Headquarters
Lubyanskaya Square is one of the most famous squares in Moscow. For the Soviet people it was synonymous with the NKVD and KGB, which had their headquarters at the huge mustard-colored building faced with grey granite. Now it is official headquarters of FSB the Federal Security Bureau. In the middle of the square the Solovetsky Stone brought from Solovetsky labor camps was erected in 1990 in order to commemorate the victims of the communist terror.
A popular joke says that it’s the highest building in whole Russia because even from its basement one can see Siberia.
Polytechnic Museum
The ornate yellow building of the Polytechnic Museum was constructed in Neo-Russian style at the end of the 19th century. Various exhibitions taking place here are devoted to the greatest achievements of the human thought beginning from the first electric bulb and the latest high technologies.
Chapel-monument to Russian Grenadiers
The chapel in the shape of a huge bell is a Memorial to the Heroes of Plevna. It was put up in 1877 in memory of the Russian grenadiers who fell in the battles near Plevna in order to liberate Bulgaria from the Turks. The architect Sherwood built the monument from subscriptions given by the heroes' comrades-in-arms.
Slavonic Square
Monument to St. Cyril and Methodius
The smallest square in Moscow is Slavonic square. In May, 24 Muscovites celebrate the holiday of the Slavic culture here at the monument to St. Cyril and Methodius who are famous for introducing the first alphabet and spreading literacy in Russia. The Russian alphabet (Cyrillic) was named after St. Cyril, a Greek missionary invited by a Slavic Prince to help convert the Slavic people to Christianity in the 9th century. At that time the Slavic people did not have a written language of their own and very few of them could understand Scriptures in Latin, Greek or Hebrew. Cyril and Methodius were apparently very cunning guys who wouldn’t take pains to create a completely new alphabet. Instead, they just borrowed a number of letters from Latin, a number of letters from Greek, and a number of letters from Hebrew and mixed them with a few letters they had to create for most likely they didn’t find appropriate symbols for some Slavic sounds. Moreover, they appeared to be very naughty men confusing the whole world by using the Latin “B” to indicate the sound [v], the Latin “C” to represent the sound [s] and so on an so forth. As a result, the Cyrillic alphabet appeared, as misleading, confusing, unusual, and incomparable as the endless labyrinths of the Slavic soul.
Stalin Skyscrapers
Stalin skyscrapers a.k.a. the Seven Sisters or the Wedding cakes are historical and architectural wonders fascinating Russians and foreigners. These majestic high-risers were built on order of Stalin as a symbol of Moscow's status as capital of a powerful Soviet state, victorious over Nazi Germany. Actually, the construction of these gothic-like skyscrapers served different purposes. They were meant to overpower the US imposing high-risers of the same period. Besides, they were residential complexes for the elite Party members who were conveniently housed together for Stalin to keep an eye on “potential dissidents.” The designs were conceived in the 1930s but the last weren't completed until after Stalin's death in the 1950s. Of the Seven Sisters, two are hotels with apartments (Ukraine Hotel and the Leningradskaya Hotel), two house government ministries (the Ministry of Water Transport and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs), two are residential buildings (at Barrikadnaya and Kotelnicheskaya Embankment) and the last is Moscow State University. The 34-storey Ukraine Hotel was the first skyscraper to be completed, in 1951, and the 36-storey University was the last, in 1954.
All the Seven sisters are located in the most important parts of the City. Viewed from a distance their silhouettes emphasize the picturesque city panorama.
Rossia Hotel
In old times Zaryadye literally translated as the area behind the Trading Stalls was part of old Moscow famous for the many beautiful churches which once stood here. Unfortunately, it was almost completely demolished to make way for the building of the Hotel 'Rossiya.' This huge building designed by the architect Chechulin was erected between 1964 and 1969. It is considered the biggest hotel in Europe and the second biggest hotel in the world which can accommodate 6000 people in its 4000 rooms. According to the Mayor’s reconstruction plans the hotel will be demolished and a number of smaller hotels of higher quality will be built on the spot.
Red Square
Red square has always been the spiritual center of Russia. Millions of tourist visit it very year. Luckily enough, they do not arrive at the same time, particularly if you come to explore the wonders of Moscow in low season, so there’s always room for you to look around and feel the heartbeat of the great city on the seven hills.
Hundreds of years ago Red Square used to be the main Market Place. In the 16th century it was called Troitskaya (Trinity) Square after Holy Trinity Church which stood where St. Basil's Cathedral is now to be seen. In the Middle Ages there were often raging fires here, and so it got an alternative name: Fire Square. From the mid-17th century it became known as Krasnaya (Red) square, and in Old Russian this simply meant 'beautiful.'
Red square is widely known as the place where military parades took place in the Soviet Union era. During the time of Gorbachev parades were cancelled and now only once a year on Victory Day the parade takes place here but military hardware no longer participates in it, only cadets of military academies and universities.
Red Square is also the centre of festive events: different celebrations and festivals, concerts and shows take place here.
Lobnoye Mesto (Forehead Place)
The oldest construction in Red square is Lobnoye Mesto or Forehead Place. It was built in the first half of the 16th century and served as a platform from which the Tsar's edicts were read out, and also the sentences for convicted criminals. Lobnoye Mesto was also a place where holy relics were displayed so that all the people could honour them. The Tsars also used Lobnoye Mesto on special occasions: in 1547 Ivan the Terrible appealed to his people from this spot, and the boyars Boris Godunov and Vasily Shuisky were proclaimed Tsar from Lobnoye Mesto. The heir to the throne would be shown to people at the age of 14, so that the people could see their future lawful Tsar There is a wide-spread opinion that Lobnoye Mesto was the site of executions, but it is false. Scaffolds were erected close by, but executions were most often carried out on the slope behind St. Basil's Cathedral.
Saviour Tower
Spasskaya (Savior) tower is indeed the symbol of the Kremlin. The Spasskaya Tower is crowned with a stone spire for the main clock in Russia – a chiming clock. The Chimes on the Savior Tower ring every half an hour. They play the Russian anthem at 12 a.m. Every year on the 31st of December as New Year is already on the doorstep about to knock on the door every Russian waits with the heart pounding for the Chimes to strike 12 making a wish with every strike. Broadcast on TV the main Clock strikes for everyone in Russia from Kaliningrad in the West to Vladivostok in the East letting people hope that their dreams will come true.
St. Basil’s Cathedral
The Cathedral is actually called The Cathedral of the Intercession of the Mother of God. It was built in the mid-16th century by the architects Barma and Postnik by decree of Ivan the Terrible in honour of the capture of the Kazan Khanate, part of the former Golden Horde. There is a story that Ivan the Terrible was so impressed by the cathedral that he had the men blinded so that they could never create a miracle like that.
The cathedral got its second, more widely known name of St. Basil’s Cathedral after a small church of Saint Basil that was built later on the grave of a Fool in Christ’s Sake who was much respected in Moscow.
The Cathedral actually comprises nine individual churches each crowned by a unique tower. The spire of the central church unites the other eight churches, with their onion domes, as if binding them to itself. The eight towers are positioned around the central, ninth spire, and on plan they form an eight-pointed star which symbolizes the entire Christian Church as a guiding star showing mankind the way to the Heavenly Jerusalem.
Monument to Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky
The memorial to Minin and Pozharsky which was erected in 1818 to the design of the sculptor I. Martos. Kuzma Minin and Prince Pozharsky were the leaders of the second group of Russian irregular soldiers in 1612 that defeated the Poles occupying the Kremlin. The inscription reads: To Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky. From Grateful Russia.
Kazan Cathedral
The Cathedral of the Mother of God of Kazan was the first of Moscow's churches to be restored. It was originally built in the second quarter of the 17th century in honor of the Kazanskaya Icon, in thanks for deliverance of Russia from the invasion of Poles and Lithuanians which took place in 1612, and also in memory of those Russian soldiers who fell in battle.
After the revolution the cathedral shared the sad fate of most Moscow churches celebrating its 300th anniversary by being blown up in 1936. Later a cafe was opened on its site.
Moscow City Council decided that the Kazansky Cathedral should be restored and in 1990 his Holiness Patriarch Alexy II laid the foundation stone, and three years later he re-consecrated the newly-built cathedral.
The Resurrection Gates.
The Resurrection Gates were erected at the end of the 17th century and served as the Tsar’s ceremonial entry to Red Square. During the Soviet period the Gates were removed to make way for parades and vehicles. The Resurrection Gates were built anew again only in 1995.
GUM department store
The famous State Department Store (GUM) that up to the Revolution was known as Upper Trading Stalls was built after the design of Pomerantsev and Klein in 1893. Although it’s no longer owned by the state Muscovites still call it State Department Store. Now GUM Joint Stock Company is not only an architectural masterpiece, but also a wide network of shops in Moscow. A lot of boutiques on the most part selling foreign brands are located on both levels of this huge architectural complex.
The building is constructed in the Russian style. The design of the building's front side, decorated with cut rustic, is similar to that of the Kremlin and the Historical Museum
The unique glass-roof designed by engineer V. Shukhov looks light but it is a firm construction made of over 50,000 pounds (about 819 tons) of metal.
GUM Shopping Mall is located on the spot with a centuries long history of trading. For many years there were simply narrow trading stalls with small counters. At the time the cries of street traders filled the air, inviting everyone to buy goods: “Our wares are of good quality, but cheap; buy from us and get a souvenir!” When a passer-by entered a shop, the seller rushed to him and used all his methods to make the man choose something. It was possible to hear even such phrases as: “May God give you good health to the extent our jacket suits you!”
Few companies have such a long and rich history as GUM, and only a few malls in Russia can proudly say that they were opened over a century ago and are successfully working now.
Lenin’s Tomb
The first mausoleum made of wood was built right after the death of Lenin to preserve his embalmed body in 1924. The present one (the third one) is made of red granite and black labradorite. Lenin wished to be buried near his mother in Volkov cemetery in St. Petersburg. Krupskaya, Lenin’s widow, his brother and sister protested against this blasphemous form of burial, however, the party leaders insisted on displaying his body for communist propaganda. That is why Lenin’s tomb was turned into a platform from which state leaders could address the people.
Behind the Mausoleum there is a necropolis of state leaders and ministers of soviet government. Some remarkable political figures were buried in the earth near the Kremlin wall. They are Stalin, Brezhnev, Andropov, Chernenko. Cosmonauts, military men, heroes of the WWII, ministers, etc. were cremated, and the urns with their ashes were buried in the wall.
To the right and to the left of the Mausoleum there are Common graves where those who perished in the revolutionary events of 1917 were buried.
The Moscow Kremlin

1) Kremlin walls and towers
The Kremlin in Old Russian meant “fortress” and many Old Russian cities used to have their own Kremlins or fortresses which formed the center of any settlement. The Moscow Kremlin is considered the best preserved one and is by right called the major attraction of the capital.
The Kremlin is built in the form of an irregular triangle. It was originally washed by the Moskva-river and the Neglinka-river which was later channeled into a tube. The Kremlin has 20 towers, three of which – the round ones – are placed at the three corners.
In the old times the Kremlin was the residence of the royal power and the center of Russian Orthodoxy.

2) Cathedral Square
Cathedral Square is the oldest preserved part of the Kremlin.
The Moscow Kremlin walls carefully protect the unique architectural ensemble of the Cathedral Square. The golden-dome cathedrals and white-stone churches occupy special places among the historical monuments of the Kremlin. They are both masterpieces of ancient architecture as well as museums bearing ancient Russian painting and decorative and applied arts. In 1999 the Moscow Kremlin was included on UNESCO list of monuments of global heritage as a historical and culture museum and preserve. The monuments of the Kremlin acquire the status of world property and the Russian government has assumed the responsibility before the international community for the care and preservation.

3) Assumption Cathedral
The Uspensky (Assumption) Cathedral used to be Moscow's main church that was the focal point of religious activity. It was built in the 14th – 15th centuries by Aristotle Fiorovanti. Russian Tsars beginning with Ivan the Terrible (16th century) and Emperors were crowned here. The ritual installation of metropolitans and patriarchs of the Orthodox Church also took place in this cathedral, and their tombs are also to be found in the Assumption Cathedral.
This church is the principal link of the Cathedral Square architectural ensemble. In 1475 famous Italian architect Fiorovanti came to Moscow to build the Assumption cathedral. Initially the church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mother was located here which was built in the 14th century by commission from Peter, the first Moscow metropolitan. Within 4 years a new cathedral was consecrated and opened for Muscovites. Thus Moscow became the center of the uniting the Russian lands. The Assumption cathedral symbolized the might of the unified Russian state. “Like a single stone” is how one historian characterized the wholeness and majesty of the new church. The cathedral has 3 entrances: south, west and north. The southern entrance facing the Cathedral Square was intended for parades and other grand events and it is especially bright. 2 angels guard the entrance; above them in white-stone arches are figures of Russian saints. And above those figures is the image of Our Lady of Vladimir who was the primary saint of Russia. Since it was founded the Assumption cathedral has been the main church of the state. The pulpit for the heads of the Russian church is here. This is where they were ordained and finally they were buried. All grand ceremonies took place in the Assumption cathedral including coronations. Ivan the Terrible, Boris Godunov, Mikhail Romanov and young Peter I, also known as Peter the Great, were all crowned here. Even when Peter I declared St. Petersburg a new Russian capital the Kremlin maintained its significance as the court of Russian state power. As such, all Russian emperors and empresses traveled to Moscow for coronation at the Assumption cathedral. The coronation ceremony entailed the tsar leading a procession and walking around wards covered with red cloak to the Assumption cathedral. Following the solemn liturgy at the Assumption cathedral the tsar went to the Archangel cathedral where he paid tribute to his ancestors by bowing in front of their tombs and asking them for the blessing over his reign. The procession then went to the GKP stopping at the Annunciation cathedral which was the domestic chapel for Moscow tsars.

4) Archangel Michael Cathedral
The Archangel Michael Cathedral designed by the Italian architect Alevis Novij in the early 16th century is the burial place of the Grand Princes and Tsars. It’s the vault for Moscow male rulers among them Ivan the Terrible, the first Tsar of Russia and his youngest son Dmitri of Uglich, the last representative of the first Russian dynasty who at the age of 9 allegedly committed suicide playing with a knife – he fell on it eight times and died as a result, presumably he was murdered on order of his regent Boris Godunov. The first Tsar from the Romanov dynasty Mikhail and his son Alexi who was father of Peter the Great found their resting place under the vaults of the cathedral.
The church houses 54 tombs, all graves are in the ground and above them stand white gravestones from the 17th century.
In olden times the Archangel cathedral was a much revered church. Princes and tsars regularly visited the church, as it was considered an essential part of court ceremonies and rites. The fathers’ tombs were worshipped. Prayers for divine interventions and aid and thanks were given for victory. In the middle of the 16th century during the reign of Ivan the Terrible the cathedral was decorated with wall painting.

5) Annunciation Cathedral
The charming gold-leaf nine-dome church – the Blagoveshcnsky (Annunciation) Cathedral built in the late 15th century by masters from Pskov was the family church of the Tsars. It was here that they got married and had their new-born heirs to the throne baptized, and the cathedral's senior presbyter was the Tsar's family confessor.
The cathedral was an integral part of the Grand Princes Palace and was connected to it by an overpass. Since its construction the AC has not changed its outward or interior appearance. Gradually the church became a remarkable historic and artistic monument of medieval Moscow.
After revolution of 1917 it was turned into a museum. Since 1992 the church’s services were held on the day of the celebration of Annunciation that is April, the 7th.

6) Ivan the Great Bell Tower
The tallest building in the Kremlin ensemble is Ivan the Great’s Bell Tower – 81 meters/ 266 feet. Ivan the Great's Bell Tower was built for the Assumption, Archangel and Annunciation Cathedrals which did not have their own belfries.
The bell-tower complex consists of 3 parts. If you look at the complex from right to left you will see the Ivan the Great Bell-Tower, then the Assumption belfry and finally the Filaret’s annex. The complex was constructed over the course of 120 years. The Ivan the Great bell-tower was built at the beginning of the 16th century for Tsar Ivan III bell. It was approximately 60 m. in height and was named St. Ivan. Later at the end of the 16th century the tower was heightened to 81 meters and was given the name “Ivan the Great”. In 1812 Napoleon ordered the complex to be destroyed. The only thing standing after the destruction was the pillar from the Ivan the Great Bell-Tower. Currently the Assumption belfry has the biggest bell among Moscow towers which survive from the past – the Uspenskij bell. This bell was silent for many years but on Great Russian Orthodox holidays the ringing of the bell can be heard far beyond the walls of the Moscow Kremlin as it used to be in the past. Each Moscow tsar aspired to create a bell with a lower tone than the one created by the previous leader. Thus each new bell needed to be heavier and bigger than its predecessor. This tradition accounted for the casting of giant bells. The biggest one, the so-called Tsar-Bell, was cast at the first half of the 18th century.

7) Faceted Chamber
To the right of the GKP is the Hall of Facets. This was the grand reception hall for Moscow princes and tsars. It was constructed at the end of the 15th century under the leadership of the Italian architects Friasin and Solari. There was an open staircase outside the building that was later named the Red Porch. Foreign councils were met here. Its original construction was not preserved. Instead the porch was reconstructed according to the 19th century form.

8) Church of Holy Robe Deposition
An elegant one-dome is the Church of Laying our Lady’s Holy Robe. The church is named after the Russian orthodox holiday of laying our lady’s holy robe. Initially the church was the domestic chapel for Moscow metropolitans and patriarchs. In the middle of the 17th century the church was connected to the Tsarina’s chambers by an underpath and since then it has been considered part of the palace.

9) Terem Churches
The Golden Tsarina Palace was constructed at the end of the 15th century. This building is one of several that make up the women’s quarters of the Tsar’s court and is the reception hall for Russian noble women. Above the Golden Tsarina Palace one can see the painting of the 17th century of 11 domes of the Terem churches. They were constructed at the behest of Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich, the first tsar of the Romanov dynasty.

10) Patriarch Palace
The Patriarchal Palace was built during the time of Patriarch Nikon and was used as his residence. The Patriarchal palace completes the ensemble of the Cathedral Square on the north.
The PP was commissioned by patriarch Nikon and constructed during the years 1653 through 1655. Today the museum of decorative arts and daily life of the 17th century is located here. In the past the first floor was occupied by a variety of official rooms. The reception hall and private chapel and the dining room were on the second floor. The living quarters and the patriarch’s office occupied the third floor.

11) Tsar Bell
The biggest one, the so-called Tsar-Bell, was cast at the first half of the 18th century. According to an old Orthodox tradition bell casting was a sacred craft. The bigger the bell was the lower voice it had. Russian people believe that the low voice of a bell reaches God. Thus, every ruler considered it a sacred duty to cast a bigger bell than the bell of his predecessor. No one has ever heard the voice of the Tsar-Bell because it cracked and a large piece broke off weighing over 11 tons that broke off. The Tsar-Bell itself weighs about 200 tons.

12) Tsar Cannon
The Tsar-Canon had the same fate as the Tsar Bell – no one has ever seen it in action. It was cast by craftsmen Chohov in the 17th century and originally placed on Red square was used as a powerful deterrent for the Russian enemies. The total weight of this secret weapon is 40 tons.

13) Grand Kremlin Palace
The Grand Kremlin Palace was constructed in the mid 19th century by the architect K. Ton as a temporary residence for Tsar Nicholas I. In ancient times Tsar’s mansions were located here. For centuries this place was considered the residence of power.
It used to be a temporary imperial residence of the Russian Emperors on their visits to Moscow, when St. Petersburg was the capital of Russia.
Five reception halls are situated on the first floor – St. Valdimir Hall, St. Alexander Hall, St. Andrew Hall, St. George Hall and St. Catherine Hall. Their names correspond to the names of the main Russian orders. The present Grand Kremlin Palace used to house the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The interiors of St. Andrew and St. Alexander Halls were completely ruined. 350 million dollars were spent on their reconstruction.
The ground floor of the Grand Kremlin Palace presents the apartments of the official residence of President, although neither Yeltsin, no Putin have ever spent an overnight here.

14) State Armoury
The Armory houses the world’s largest collection of Russian and foreign objects of applied art from the fifth to the twentieth century. The basis of the collection is the treasury of the Grand Princes and Tsars which began its collection in the Moscow Kremlin beginning in the 14th century. Until the 18th century works of the Kremlin masters were added to the treasury including the Silver Chamber, the Gold Chamber and the Stables. The largest of these was the Armory which opened in the early 19th century. The kernel exposition is displayed in the building which was built specifically for the museum by the architect Constantine Ton in 1851. The Armory which is Russia’s original treasury offers a glimpse into the richness of Russia and Russian history. It’s a museum of history and art which preserves the unique monuments of world and local culture. A significant number of these works are items of Russian national art made in the Moscow Kremlin’s workshops.

15) Diamond Fund
The Diamond Fund of the Russian Federation was founded in 1922 on the basis of royal treasures that had been previously kept in the Diamond Room of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg hidden from people’s eyes.
Only few people managed to see the treasures of the Diamond Room, even courtiers chanced to look at them from the distance during different court ceremonies. There were neither photos nor drawings that depicted them. The only exception was portraits of the members of the royal family with the state regalia and the post cards issued in 1913 on the occasion of 300 anniversary of the Romanovs’ House.
It is worth mentioning that the treasuries did not personally belong to the royal family but to the state and after ceremonies regalia and empress’s jewelleries were to be returned to the Diamond Room.
During WWI the treasures of the diamond room were evacuated from St. Petersburg to Moscow where they were kept in the Armoury Chamber. Fortunately the major part of them survived in the turbulent years of WWI, the revolution and civil war and then, for the first time, was presented to public in 1925 on the temporary exhibition. The permanent exhibition has worked since 1967.
The exhibition features the collection of diamonds, historical relics, such as state regalia, unique precious stones and the outstanding works of jewellery art of the 18th-19th centuries, jewelleries made by contemporary masters and the collection of gold nuggets.








































Alexander Garden
Designed by a noted architect Osip Beauvais Alexander Garden was laid out almost 200 years ago. Before, there, was the Neglinka River that protected the Kremlin from the north. The river was piped underground and now flows under the garden.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier located in Alexander Garden is the main memorial to the heroes of the Second World War. The remains were brought from the common grave located in the Moscow region, and buried in the Garden on the 25th anniversary of the defeat of the German army. On 8 May 1967 the Eternal Flame brought from St. Petersburg was lit on the Tomb. At the Tomb, fire comes from a bronze, five-pointed star situated on a red granite gravestone. Above it one can see a sculptural composition in the form of a banner, a branch of laurels and a soldier’s helmet. The inscription under the star on the monument says: “Your name is unknown, your deeds are immortal”. On the left of the Tomb on the granite wall we read: “1941. To those who died for the fatherland. 1945.”
There are monumental blocks of red porphyry with the names of city-heroes along the Kremlin wall in the Alexander Garden. Inside them there is earth brought from Brest, Kiev, Minsk, Volgograd, Tula, Murmansk, Smolensk, St. Petersburg, Sevastopol, Odessa, Novorossiysk and Kerch.
The Russians remember the heroes of the Great Patriotic War who saved the world from the Fascist aggression and often come to Alexander garden to pay tribute to the glorious deeds of those who fell in battles.
Balchug Kempinsky Hotel
Balchug Kempinsy hotel has a long history beginning in 1898 when a house for rent was built on the spot of the present day hotel. Merchants and traders often chose to stay here for the hotel was very close to the main market located on Red Square. The hotel acquired its present day appearance after a reconstruction held by a German company Kempinsky in 1992. Ever since it’s been very popular among Russian and foreign guests of the capital. Gerhard Schroeder, Jose Carreras, Luciano Pavarotti have stayed at Balchug Kempinsky Hotel during their visits to Moscow.
Aurora Marriott Hotel
Monument to Peter the Great
The monument devoted to the 300 anniversary of the Russian Navy is more widely known as the monument to Peter I. Created in 1997 by the present Head of the Russian Academy of Fine Arts Zurab Tseretely it depicts Peter the Great at the wheel of a huge ship. The attitude of Muscovites towards the sculpture is far from favorable as the monument due to its impressive size won’t fit in the surrounding architectural ensemble.
Observation platform at Sparrow Hills
Victory Park
Poklonnaja Mountain or Bow Hill is the most significant monument constructed in honor of the victory over Nazis in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. The solemn opening of the Victory Memorial in Moscow was held in May, 9, 1995 and marked the 50th anniversary of the victory.
The central part of the memorial is taken by Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War. Its exhibits tell about the key battles, the heroic deeds of rank-and-file soldiers and prominent military leaders and officers.
The museum workers put a colossal effort into collecting documentary evidence, memoirs, clothes and weapons of those days. In spite of its relatively short existence, it includes a variety of material and documentary items. There’re about 100.000 of them. Among them are letters from the frontline, newspapers and posters of the war period, photos, examples of military uniform, weapons, personal belongings of high commanders and privates.
The main monument of Victory is an obelisk with a bronze statue of Nike, the goddess of Victory.
In the park of the Memorial complex that spreads over 135 hectares there are open-air exhibitions displaying weapons, tanks and armored vehicles, fighters and helicopters, submarines and warships used by the Soviet Army during the WW2.
The Memorial complex also includes an Orthodox Church, a Mosque and a Synagogue reflecting that the struggle against Fascists united the people of different confessions.
Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts
Founded by a professor of Moscow State University Tsvetayev in 1912 as a museum of casts representing masterpieces of antique, medieval and renaissance sculpture it gradually turned into the most outstanding museum of fine arts in Russia. Now it comprises all most prominent national schools of painting in Western Europe – Italy, Spain, Holland, Flanders, France from the 13th up to the beginning of the 20th century. No doubt the highlight of the highlights on display is an absolutely unique collection of French impressionists.
New Maiden convent
The New Maiden Convent is one of the city's most beautiful architectural ensembles with a long history behind its toothed walls. Founded as a fortress in the south of Moscow it gradually became a place of political activity. This is where Boric Godunov was elected the Russian ruler in the turbulent Time of Troubles. Since the 17th century it was the place of seclusion for Tsarinas and other noble women thus becoming the richest convent in Russia.
The adjacent New Maiden Cemetery is Moscow's most prestigious resting place after the Kremlin wall, containing the tombs of Chekhov, Shostakovich, Stanislavski, Khrushchev, Gromyko, Molotov, Raisa Gorbachev and others.
Bush’s ducks
Not long ago the sculptural composition “Make way for ducklings” was reopened in the part at New Maiden Convent. It features Mother-Duck and her eight ducklings – Jack, Kack, Lack, Mack, Nack, Quack, Pack, Kwack from the famous fairy-tale by Robert McCloskey. The first opening of the composition took place in 1991 when Barbara Bush presented to Raisa Gorbachev and to all Russian children the exact copy of the sculpture from the Central Park of Boston. In the same 1991 one of the ducklings was kidnapped but as he was walking at the end of the line its absence wasn’t really noticeable. In February 2000 an unknown criminal sawed off Mrs. Mallard and two central ducklings. The composition was totally spoiled. Children cried and demanded the ducklings back. Americans living in Moscow decided to sponsor the restoration of the sculptural composition which is the embodiment of the far-away Motherland for them in Russia. Six American companies donated money for the restoration works supervised by Nancy Schoen who is the author of the sculptures in Boston and Moscow. To be on the safe side the sculptures were insured (the insurance companies estimated each duckling at six thousand American dollars and Mrs. Mallard at twenty-four thousand USD).
Europe square
In September, 2002 a new square was opened in front of Kiev railway terminal in Moscow. A sculptural composition on the theme of a mythological subject “The Rape of Europe” by a Belgian sculptor Olivier Strebel was given to Moscow by Brussels government as a symbol of Russian-European friendship and cooperation. The avant-garde fountain with the sculpture of curved steel pipes resembling the bull’s horns and featuring Europe carried by the bull occupies the central part of the square.
Kiev railway terminal
All in all there are 9 railway stations in Moscow connecting the city with many parts of Russia and the world. The Kiev railway station connects Moscow with the Ukraine, Moldavia, Hungary, Italy and Greece. Built at the beginning of the 20th century the Kiev railway station is still considered one of the best architectural masterpieces with wonderful glass roofing above the platform and with a gorgeous façade decorated with a tall clock tower.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Old Arbat Street
The Arbat is a true symbol of old Moscow, and has recently celebrated its 500th anniversary. The name of the street was first mentioned in the chronicles of 1493. The word Arbat is linked with the Arabic word “rabad” which means “suburb” – in the 15th century only the Kremlin itself was regarded as the city proper. In those days Arbat was the place where caravans with goods from the East stood and an Arabic word could assimilate into the local tongue.
In the second half of the 18th century Arbat became the most aristocratic area of the city where Moscow intelligentsia used to settle. Among them was the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin who brought his young wife to his mansion in Arbat street right after their wedding on the eve of which he’d arranged a stag party here.
In 1986 the Arbat was repaved as the first pedestrian street in Moscow. Nowadays it’s a vibrant street with a lot of nice souvenir stores and cafes, street vendors and artists, a popular place among the youth.
Prague restaurant
Prague restaurant owes its birth to a merchant called Tararykin. In the 1870s the Prague was opened on the ground floor as an inexpensive eating house. Its customers were mainly cabmen working in this neighborhood, and it is no surprise to find that they nicknamed it the 'Braga,' which means home-brewed beer. In 1896 Tararykin won the whole building as a wager on his playing billiards with his left hand. The industrious player decided to turn the Prague into a first class restaurant, exploiting its advantageous position on the Arbat. He thought that he could earn large profits. And he spared no expense on the renovation, which was carried out by Kekushev and Ericson, the best Moscow architects in the Art Nouveau style.
The restaurant was magnificently decorated with gilded stucco moldings, shining bronze figures and a multitude of mirrors. The premises were split into separate dining halls and small booths where one could relax in comfort. A roof garden was made where guests could dine in the fresh air and admire the panoramic views.
The new restaurant was noteworthy for its refined cuisine which combined the traditions of Moscow's best specialist chefs – the Frenchman Olivier, who had worked at the 'Hermitage' restaurant, and the renowned Testov from Okhotny Ryad. Tararykin himself even surpassed Testov's skills with his celebrated open-topped sterlyat pasties, for he cooked them with equal portions of sterlyat and sturgeon. All the restaurant's crockery was decorated with the golden inscription: 'A Warm Welcome from Tararykin!' Nor did Tararykin forget how the restaurant had come into his possession – it had the best billiard tables in Moscow.
Service in the Prague was kept at the highest possible standards. In accordance with the custom in high-class restaurants of that time, Tararykin paid no salary to the waiters, and their sole income came from the tips left by the customers. The total tips of the day would be pooled together, and then shared out equally. If someone was caught trying to conceal a tip he would be dismissed.
In no time the restaurant acquired a reputation as one of the best restaurants in Moscow, and official banquets were often held here.
Elki-Palki restaurant
Elki-Palki is a popular brand of a wide chain of Russian cuisine restaurants located in the city centre. Girls with braids and guys wearing Russian national costumes will wait on you and serve the famous borsh, pancakes or “blini” with caviar or salmon and vodka. The Moscow youth and tourists enjoy the cozy atmosphere of the tavern which is good both for a meeting with friends and a business talk.
New Arbat Street
New Arbat is a wide avenue of 1970’s Soviet architecture: tall buildings, a bit like open books at an angle, line both sides of the avenue. They house offices of different home and foreign companies. A lot of bars, cafes, restaurants, shopping malls, huge stores, beauty salon, and casinos are located here.
This area has been historically one of the most prestigious residential areas of Moscow despite all the damage which was done to it during the Soviet Era it has preserved its status.
Late at night New Arbat Street is brightly illuminated with street lamps, casino and advertisement lights.
Moscow metro
Moscow Metro (still named after Lenin) is considered to be one of the best in the world. Its stations impress with their architectural solutions, the trains are fast, the cars are comfortable, and the traffic organization is accurate.
The first test train was set in operation on October 15, 1934, and on May 15, 1935, the first thirteen stations were opened for public use. This day is now celebrated as the birthday of the Soviet Metro.
In 1932 construction of Moscow's metro began as a piece of art with elegant and huge stations. Today the Moscow metro seems to be the busiest in the world, carrying an average of 8-9 million passengers on a normal weekday, i.e. some 3,000,000,000 (!) a year.
The Moscow Metro is 269.5 km long and has 165 stations (including transition stations).
Although there are line numbers on some maps lines are identified by names referring to the areas they serve. There's also a 20 km long ring line connecting all other lines. The system is almost entirely underground although some lines cross the Moskva river and line 1 also the Yauza river on a bridge.
The stations of the Moscow Metro are open since 5:30 a.m. The last train leaves its final route-point at 1:00 a.m., late at night, that's the time, when passengers are not allowed to make transitions from one line to another.
Many Muscovites go to work and back home by Metro, that's why you should be aware of the rush hours in the Moscow Metro on working days. Try to avoid using Metro during peak hours in the morning, between 7.30 a.m. and 10.30 a.m., and in the evening, from 4.00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m.
However, many stations are always overcrowded. In most cases, these are the stations located close to railway and bus terminals, biggest department stores and market places.
The Metro stations were designed and embellished by prominent Russian architects, artists and sculptors. Their great talent and decorative skills created a peculiar underground network of great artistic value. The gamut of original materials, which were used to ornament the stations, is so wide that the Moscow Metro may be called a unique Museum of Geology or even a peculiar Museum of Arts.
Nowadays, it is impossible to imagine Moscow without the Metro. It has become an inalienable part of the city, and it is the most convenient and the fastest city transit.
Kolomenskoye museum estate
The former summer residence of Moscow Grand Princes and Russian Tsars Kolomenskoye Estate is an invaluable museum preserve of a unique architectural ensemble created in the 16th-17th centuries. Magnificent tent-roof churches – unique cultural treasures of Old Russian architecture – are amazing in their towering splendour.
Tretyakov Gallery
Founded by a Russian millionaire and benefactor of the 19th century Pavel Tretyakov the Tretyakov gallery is a unique museum of Russian art beginning from the 12th century icon painting through to the 20th century masters such as Lentulov, Malevich and Kandinsky. It displays an excellent collection of Russian realism, impressionism and art nouveau masterpieces absolutely different from anything you have ever seen in the world giving a wonderful insight into the Russian history, the Russian mentality and the Russian soul.



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